Resource Author: G Vishal
This paper intends to understand the condition of ‘working life’ of the street vendors in Lucknow. The study is based on
200 sample respondents. This study is explorative in nature, showing that the street vendors depend on the money lenders
for their economic activity as well as for social security purposes. This study also reveals that there is an excessive hour of work and street vendors live a miserable life at every end.
Resource Author: OS Adeyemi, O Oluwaseun
The children working, living and surviving on the street is a global problem, affecting developed and developing countries alike. However, the magnitude of the problem varies, with less developed countries facing more acute problems. The street children are marginalised children who require enormous assistance but they are often least assisted in a society. There are many factors responsible for the increase in the rate of street children and this has necessitated this type of research. This study, therefore, investigated the cultural factors promoting streetism among urban children in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria.
Resource Author: Stephen Gaetz, Bill O'Grady, Kristy Buccieri, Jeff Karabanow, Allyson Marsolais
This volume is intended to highlight the best of Canadian research on youth homelessness. The book is organised in a thematic way, so that there are separate sections relating to: 1) pathways in and out of homelessness; 2) housing; 3) health; 4) mental health and addictions; 5) employment, education and training; 6) legal and justice issues; and 7) diversity and subpopulations. Each chapter is accompanied by a short, plain language summary that captures the key themes. In addition, some sections include ‘promising practice’ summaries of effective program responses from communities across Canada.
Resource Author: All Party Parliamentary Group on Street Children
In June 2005 the All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Street Children received a report from the UK charity War Child. The report presented findings from War Child’s work that illustrated the on-going effects of conflict in the lives of children long after conflict had ended. In particular, it described how the consequences of war unraveled the social fabric that children depend upon for protection, care and support, and how this plays a significant part in their being driven to work and live on the streets. The APPG found that unemployment and lack of income generating opportunities have stretched the capacities of households to function as viable economic units. The recommendations put forward in this report are based on the APPG’s position that the UK Government has significant influence and responsibility because of the scale of commitment it is making to the people of the DRC on behalf of the British public.
Published by Consortium for Street Children (2012)
Resource Author: Anne Louise Meincke
This paper’s preliminary findings were presented at the Expert Consultation in Geneva on 1-2 November 2011 to stimulate discussion amongst participants, and to inform the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ (OHCHR) report to the Human Rights Council (UNHRC) in March 2012 (19th session)
Resource Author: Human Rights Watch
Papua New Guinea’s serious crime problem is being met with a violent police response. Children, who make up nearly half of the country’s some 5.6 million people, are especially vulnerable. The experience of Steven E. reflects that of many children at the hands of the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary, the country’s police force. Brutal beatings, rape, and torture of children, as well as confinement in sordid police lockup, are widespread police practices. Although even high level government officials acknowledge this, almost nothing has been done to stop it. The vast majority of children who are arrested are severely beaten and often tortured by members of the police. Almost everyone Human Rights Watch interviewed in each area we visited who had been arrested was beaten. Children reported being kicked and beaten by gun butts, crowbars (“pins bars”), wooden batons, fists, rubber hoses, and chairs.
In 2003, the government, as a result of the efforts of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and an interagency working group of government and civil society representatives, began to create a juvenile justice system. In 2004 and 2005, policies for dealing with juveniles were adopted for police, magistrates, and correctional officials. These policies severely limit the circumstances under which children can be detained and require separation from adults. The challenge remains to implement these policies.
Resource Author: Ecpat
Visible yet ‘Unseen’: The Vulnerability of Street Children to Sexual Exploitation: Featured in the October 2013 issue of Ecpat International Journal
Resource Author: Jeff May
This article is a discussion of the various ways Canadian-born young men of
colour (aged 17–26) experience (in)visibilities in the public spaces of the Greater
Toronto Area (GTA). This chapter begins by analyzing the different ways
‘visibility’ and ‘invisibility’ have been conceptualized in the scholarly literature,
including literatures on homelessness, public space, and race. Invisibilities
include ‘invisible homelessness’ as well as material invisibilities in which young
men of colour both purposefully and accidentally navigate public spaces in ways
that affect whether they are seen or unseen and by whom. This research
emphasizes the contingency and indeterminacy of varying (in)visibilities. Despite
the various ways they move between visibility and invisibility in public spaces,
young men of colour experiencing homelessness maintain an explicit presence in
urban street spaces. Understanding their experiences of (in)visibility in urban
space helps us understand the geographies of race and racism in the GTA and in North American cities more broadly.
Resource Author: Dena Aufseeser
This dissertation examines the contradictory and complementary ways in which both neoliberal development and children’s rights legislation shape national development and child poverty in Lima and Cusco, Perú. It uses childhood as a lens through which to more critically analyze struggle over meanings of development, poverty and appropriate uses of public space, looking at the ways in which children’s rights and neoliberalism shape the regulation of poor children through a number of spaces, including social services, urban space, and street children’s everyday lives. The project is based on 14 months of in-depth ethnographic research, participant observation and interviews with street children, as well as conversations with policy makers, educators, government officials and social workers. My research design was specifically concerned with both recognizing children as active producers of knowledge and with connecting their everyday experiences with broader systemic changes and processes of development and governance. Rather than focusing on either a macro-scale or a more localized analysis, it links the subjectivity of the poor both with political-economic shifts and discourses and with identity projects. By focusing on street children’s everyday lives, this dissertation combines work on the governance of poverty, most of which has remained focused on the global north, with insights from critical development scholars regarding a need for a historical and sociopolitical account of poverty to actively politicize the ways in which Peruvian street children negotiate control, care and survival.
Resource Author: Juddy Wachira, Allan Kamanda, Lonnie Embleton, Violet Naanyu, David Ayuku, Paula Braitstein
Objective Little is known about the reproductive health or family planning needs of street-connected children and youth in resource-constrained countries. The study objective was to describe how street-connected children and youth (SCCY) in Eldoret, Kenya, perceive pregnancy.
Methods This qualitative study was conducted between August 2013 and February 2014. A total of 65 SCCY aged 11–24 years were purposively sampled from the three referral points: 1) A dedicated study clinic for vulnerable children and youth at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH); 2) Primary locations in which street children reside known as “bases/barracks”; and 3) Street youth community-based organizations. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. Content analysis was performed after thematic coding by 4 independent coders.
Results The majority of SCCY interviewed were male (69%) and sexually active (81.5%). None had gone beyond primary level of education. The strong desire for SCCY to go through conventional life experiences including marriage and child bearing was evident. Sub-themes around desired pregnancies included: sense of identity with other SCCY, sense of hope, male ego, lineage, source of income, and avoiding stigmatization. The desire for children was highly gendered with male SCCY more focused on their social status in the street community, while for females it was primarily for survival on the street. Female SCCY generally lacked agency around reproductive health issues and faced gender-based violence. Abortions (either assisted or self-induced), infanticide, and child abandonment were reported.Respondents described a lucrative market for babies born to SCCY and alleged that healthcare workers were known to abduct these babies following hospital deliveries.
Conclusion Our findings indicate gender differences in the reasons why SCCY become pregnant and have children. We also noted gender inequalities in reproductive health decisions. SCCY friendly interventions that provide tailored reproductive health services are needed.